Two-tier combination of pastoral farming and exotic forestry has been shown to be technically feasible. Research is proceeding into the long-term effects of trees on both pastures and livestock, and into land preparation and tree establishment measures appropriate to the technique. Further expansion on a management scale may be limited by financial, advisory, management and marketing constraints. However, combined land use promises higher financial returns, and less conflict in land allocation than traditional pastoral farming or exotic forestry. (no keywords)
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